What is a solar tracker?

A solar tracker is a special device that directs a solar panel or module towards the sun. It can also direct Fresnel reflectors, lenses or mirrors. Collectively, these are called payload.  Another role of trackers is to minimize angle of incidence between photovoltaic panel and incoming sunlight. This happens for flat panel photovoltaic systems. The use of tracker increases amount of energy obtained from fixed amount of an installed power production capacity.

A study of trackers in 2009 predicted that they could be uses for at least 85 percent of commercial installations that exceed one megawatt. However,  up to 2 years ago, there has not been data to support the likelihood of such predictions coming into use.

Concentrated solar power (CSP) and concentrator photovoltaics (CPV)

CPV applications solarIn CSP and CPV applications, trackers are used for purpose of enabling optical components in CSP and CPV systems. Optics in the concentrated solar applications receive direct component of sunlight. They should therefore be oriented properly to collect energy.

All concentrator applications have tracking systems as these systems cannot produce energy unless they are pointed at the sun. For instance trackers with accuracies of ± 5 degrees have capacity to deliver more than 99.6% of energy delivered by direct beam and 100 percent of diffuse light.  For this reason, high accuracy tracking will not usually be used in non concentrating PV applications.

Benefit of trackers for fixed flat panel

SoitecCPV500Fixed flat panel may be set in that position to collect high proportion of the sunlight available at noon, there is significant power for collection in early hours of the morning and late in the afternoon.  If there is misalignment with fixed panel becomes too much to collect reasonable proportion of available. For instance, if the sun is just 10º above horizon, available energy will be approximately half of the energy levels at noon or even more depending on several factors. These include season, latitude and atmospheric conditions.

The primary advantage of having a tracking system is to collect energy from the sun for longest period of day and with highly accurate alignment as position of the sun shifts with seasons.  In addition, accurate tracking becomes more important as the level of concentration employed increases. The reason is that proportion of energy that is derived from, direct radiation will be higher and region where concentrated energy will be focused becomes smaller.

Non concentrating photovoltaic-PV- tracers

Photovoltaic panels will accept direct light from sky and diffuse it as well.  Panels on the standard photovoltaic trackers shall always gather available direct sunlight. Tracking functionality in standard trackers is responsible for minimizing angle of incidence between incoming light and photovoltaic panel. It increases amount of energy that is gathered from direct component of incoming sunlight.

The science behind standard PV trackers works with all the typical photovoltaic module technologies.

How effective is a fitness ab roller

A fitness ab roller is one of the most common home equipment that many people tend to have. It is very effective equipment especially when it comes to the toning of your body and strengthening of your abs. It is not an expensive tool and does not require you to have a special place whereby you can store it. It is a very good tool especially when it comes to abdominal workouts and ensuring that you have a flat stomach especially if you use it every week.

This equipment is very efficient especially if you are the kind of person who only does ab wheel exercises. It not only works on your whole entire core but also the secondary muscles like your hamstrings, shoulders, chest and arms.

Some fitness ab roller instructions

ab_roller_workoutMany people who are beginners especially those people that have a lot of weight may find it very difficult to use an ab roller especially if they are doing it for the very first time. If you fall into this category, it is advisable that you first start out with simple exercises like standing ab workouts and crunches so that you are able to gain some strength.

A common problem that comes with the use of an ab roller is that it tends to put a lot of stress in the lower back. Therefore, if you are the kind of person who suffers from some kind of lower back problems, it is advisable that you first make sure to consult with your doctor before you start making use of this equipment. In case you have no back problems but you still feel that your back is not strong enough, the first thing that you should do is try to first strengthen your back. One of the best and effective ways that you can be able to do this is by making use of a roman chair to do hyperextension.

Another important thing that you should know is that you can only be able to get the right results if you buy ab roller in the right way and if you perform all the necessary motions in the right way. It is also important for you to be able to keep your body stable when you are rolling in and rolling out so that you are able to ensure that you do not suffer any kind of injuries. Also, you should keep your arms and knees tight so that you are able to concentrate on your abdominal muscles. In case you are not really able to make a full roll out, then you can start by increasing your distance slowly. In case you cannot be able to go that extra distance, it is advisable that you do not strain your back further than you can actually go as this may cause injury.